A constitutional description of public office is a public trust where public officers and employees commonly known as civil servants and public officials must be at all times. These civil servants and public officials are accountable to the people, whom they should serve with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty and efficiency. They are expected to act with patriotism and provide fair justice as well as lead a role of living modest lives.
At present, issues in corruption continue to affect the civil services in many countries, around the world. Several reasons of these issues still exist because of the deeply rooted problems like nepotism, cronyism, political patronage as well as lack of transparency and accountability. The unsystematic enforcement of law and institutional mechanisms for holding civil servants and public officials accountable of their actions will always lead to a negative impression to the citizens.
Civil servants often have the liberty on how they serve the public. Their ability in implementing the rules to provide public services has always a significant impact to the common citizens. The code of conduct and ethical standard for public officials and employees is set forth to promote high ethical standards in providing public services.
One of the example of this particular code is the mandatory implementation to every government officials specifically those who are elected by the people to have a transparent declaration of their statement of assets, liabilities and net worth. The strong enforcement of transparency and accountability in all civil servants and public officials will reduce the practice of corruption and the misuse of public office.
Several countries established institutional mechanisms such as Ombudsman, Anti-Corruption Commission and Special Administrative Court aimed to set a legal place and forum to hear and investigate any civil servants and public officials who in any ways, practice corruption, maladministration or violation of rights. Any person who experiences wrongly fully, unjustly or unreasonably treated can bring a case to these offices and can request for proper investigation. These offices are empowered to continue in upholding fair and just due process of law in the course of investigating any administrative case filed against a civil servant or public official.
The verdict for those civil servant or public official proven to be guilty of practicing corruption, maladministration or violation of rights is usually dismissal from the service, cancellation of eligibility, forfeited retirement benefits and disqualification of re-employment in the government service.